The Nobel Prize in Physics is one of the most prestigious honors in the scientific community. It has been awarded to exceptional individuals whose groundbreaking discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of the cosmos, matter, and fundamental forces. From 2014 to 2023, the laureates have made remarkable contributions that have reshaped the landscape of physics, advancing our knowledge and opening new frontiers of scientific exploration.

In 2014, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano, and Shuji Nakamura for their invention and development of efficient blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Their pioneering work in the early 1990s laid the foundation for the creation of bright and energy-saving white light sources. This breakthrough technology has transformed lighting systems, leading to significant energy conservation and environmentally friendly illumination worldwide. As a result of this discovery, we now witness LED bulbs and screens in almost every household these days.

The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2015 was jointly awarded to Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald for their key contributions to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which demonstrated that neutrinos have mass. Kajita and his team in Japan and McDonald’s team in Canada independently conducted experiments that revealed neutrinos changing identities as they traveled, challenging the previously held notion that neutrinos were massless particles.

In 2016, the Nobel Prize in Physics recognized the work of David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, and J. Michael Kosterlitz for their groundbreaking theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter. Their innovative research paved the way for a deeper understanding of exotic states of matter, such as topological insulators, which possess unique electronic properties and hold potential applications in quantum computing and electronics. Their research laid the foundation for quantum computing.

The Nobel Prize in Physics in 2017 honored Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish, and Kip S. Thorne’s pivotal contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves were instrumental in advancing our understanding of the universe. Their work led to the detection of gravitational waves—ripples in spacetime predicted by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity— ushering in a new era of astronomy and providing a new tool to explore the universe’s most violent and energetic phenomena.

Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou, and Donna Strickland were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2018 for their groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics. Ashkin developed optical tweezers that use laser light to manipulate and trap particles, allowing for precise control and investigation of biological systems at the molecular level. Mourou and Strickland pioneered the technique of chirped pulse amplification, enabling the creation of intense, ultra-short laser pulses with applications in various scientific and medical fields. These lasers are used in many treatments in hospitals nowadays.

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics recognized the achievements of James Peebles for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology, while Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz were awarded for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star outside our solar system. Peebles’ research greatly enhanced our comprehension of the evolution and structure of the universe. Similarly, Mayor and Queloz’s breakthrough discovery transformed the field of astronomy by providing definitive evidence for the presence of planets outside our solar system.

In 2020, the Nobel Prize in Physics honored three laureates: Roger Penrose for the discovery that black hole formation is a robust prediction of the general theory of relativity, and Reinhard Genzel and Andrea Ghez for the discovery of a supermassive compact object at the center of our galaxy, confirming the existence of a black hole, Sagittarius A*, residing at the Milky Way’s heart. Their work shed light on the mysterious nature of black holes and their profound impact on the cosmos.

The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2021 celebrated the groundbreaking contributions of Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann to the physical modeling of Earth’s climate, providing fundamental insights into how human activities affect global warming. Giorgio Parisi was awarded for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems, particularly in complex systems like disordered materials or superconductors, advancing our understanding of complex phenomena in various fields of science.

The Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 2022 celebrated the groundbreaking contributions of Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger, honoring their pioneering work in the realm of quantum physics. Their collective efforts revolutionized our understanding of the fundamental principles governing the universe, particularly through ingenious experiments involving entangled photons. By pushing the boundaries of scientific exploration, they decisively demonstrated the violation of Bell inequalities, laying the cornerstone for the burgeoning field of quantum information science. Their inventive research not only revealed deep understandings of the enigmatic behavior of quantum particles but also laid the groundwork for groundbreaking progress in quantum technologies, offering promising prospects for the future.

The prestigious Nobel Prize in Physics for 2023 has been rightfully conferred upon Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier for their groundbreaking work in pioneering experimental techniques that enable the generation of attosecond pulses of light. Their revolutionary methods have unlocked the doors to the intricate study of electron dynamics within matter, offering an unprecedented glimpse into the fundamental workings of particles at an unimaginably small scale. This recognition underscores not only their remarkable contributions but also the immense potential of their research in reshaping our understanding of the very fabric of the universe.

The Nobel Prize in Physics has consistently celebrated humanity’s pursuit of knowledge, honoring those whose remarkable contributions have expanded our understanding of the universe, matter, and fundamental forces. The laureates from 2014 to 2023 have left an indelible mark on physics, laying the groundwork for future scientific endeavors that will continue to push the boundaries of human knowledge and discovery.

Next: Nobel Prize in Medicine: Evolution of technology in health.


  • Akasaki, Isamu, Hiroshi Amano, Shuji Nakamura, and S. Nakamura. “The nobel prize in physics 2014.” The Royal Swedish Academy of Science (2014). [Paper]
  • Ramsey, Norman, Hans Dehmelt, and Wolfgang Paul. “THE NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS.” [Article]

By The Research Mind

We, researchers from the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge, are dedicated to sharing the latest updates, breakthroughs, and even the occasional blunders in Science & Technology. Stay tuned for some truly mind-blowing science experiments!

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