Are you familiar with the prominent scientists hailing from your homeland? We’re unveiling the top 100 scientists of all time, and it’s time to explore how many of them originate from your nation. Each of these scientists possesses a remarkable narrative of uncovering new knowledge and contributing to the betterment of society.

This blog (Part 1) showcases scientists numbered 1 to 13, representing countries starting with the letters ‘A’ to ‘E’. Please check out our homepage for blogs on Part 2, Part 3, and Part 4, which highlight scientists from countries beginning with ‘F’ to ‘Z’.

1. Australia-01 : Howard Walter Florey (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968)

Hailing from Australia, we chose one exceptional scientist to be included in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. This distinguished individual goes by the name of Howard Walter Florey.

He was a brilliant scientist who made significant contributions to medicine. Born in Australia in 1898, Florey’s journey to becoming a medical pioneer began with his interest in science. He studied at the University of Adelaide, where he excelled in his studies. Later, he moved to England for further education and research. Florey’s most famous achievement came during World War II when he and his team played a crucial role in the development and mass production of penicillin, the world’s first widely used antibiotic. Their work saved countless lives by treating bacterial infections that were previously difficult to cure. Florey’s dedication to scientific research and his groundbreaking work in the field of medicine have left a lasting impact, and he is remembered as one of the key figures in the history of medical advancements.
Howard Walter Florey’s legacy extends beyond his groundbreaking work on penicillin. After the war, he continued to contribute to medical research and education. Florey became a professor at the University of Oxford, where he shared his knowledge and mentored aspiring scientists. His efforts earned him numerous awards and honors, including the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945, which he shared with Sir Alexander Fleming and Sir Ernst Boris Chain for their collective contributions to the development of penicillin. Florey’s life serves as an inspiring example of how scientific curiosity, dedication, and collaboration can lead to transformative breakthroughs that benefit humanity. His work laid the foundation for the widespread use of antibiotics, revolutionizing medicine and improving the quality of life for people around the world.

2. Austria-01: Gregor Mendel (July 20, 1822 – January 6, 1884)
From Austria, we have selected two exceptional scientists to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The first luminary on our list is Gregor Mendel. He is known by everyone as the “Father of Genetics.” His plant experiments revealed the secrets of how traits are passed down from parents to children. People were curious about genetics for a long time, but no one really looked into it until Mendel did in the 1850s. This is surprising because even back in the 1730s, Carl Linnaeus used traits to group plants and animals together. If he had studied how those traits worked, he would have been known for both taxonomy and genetics.
Despite this, Mendel deserves all the credit he got for genetics. He became interested when he saw different plants and animals having different traits. He started studying mice and bees, but the bishop in charge didn’t like the idea of friars working on what he called “animal sex.” So, Mendel turned to studying plants, comparing things like heights and flower colors. He used simple math to analyze his findings and found that the traits of future generations could be predicted because they were so consistent.
Mendel’s methods and conclusions were groundbreaking. They opened the door to the amazing world of genetics that we find fascinating today. His Laws of Heredity were so ahead of their time that people didn’t fully appreciate them until long after he passed away. Besides genetics, Mendel also studied astronomy and weather. In fact, he wrote more about weather than genetics and even started Austria’s Meteorological Society.

3. Austria-02: Lise Meitner (November 7, 1878 – October 27, 1968)
The second luminary from Austria on our list is Lise Meitner. She was born on the same day as another great female scientist, Marie Curie, even though she was 11 years younger. Like Curie, Meitner faced challenges as a woman in the field of science. She became the first woman in Germany to be a physics professor, but lost her position when the Nazis took control.
Working with Otto Hahn, Meitner made significant contributions to the study of radioactivity and radiochemistry. Later, she collaborated with her nephew, Otto Frisch, to understand nuclear reactors and atomic bombs. Despite her crucial role, she faced discrimination as a woman with Jewish heritage.
In 1944, the Nobel Committee awarded the Prize only to Otto Hahn, overlooking Meitner and others. This decision was criticized years later. In 1949, the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recognized Meitner and Hahn as the discoverers of protactinium.
Meitner corresponded with notable scientists like Niels Bohr, James Chadwick, Fritz Haber, and Leo Szilard. She received numerous awards during her lifetime and posthumously. In 1997, the element meitnerium was named in her honor. Several geographical features, including a lunar crater, a Venusian crater, and an asteroid, also bear her name.

4. Belgium-01: Andreas Vesalius (December 31, 1514 – October 15, 1564)

Hailing from Belgium, we’ve selected one exceptional scientist for our roster of the top 100 scientists of all time. The distinguished individual in question is none other than Andreas Vesalius. He was a surgeon as well as a teacher at a university. He studied the human body and made important discoveries about how it works.
Vesalius learned from other great scientists who came before him, like Galen of Pergamon. He took their ideas, improved them, and sometimes proved them wrong. He believed in using real human bodies to study anatomy, instead of just looking at pictures.
Unlike Galen, who studied animals, Vesalius used human bodies for all his research. He often worked in secret and was one of the first scientists to study the human circulatory system. He also looked closely at skeletons, the nervous system, muscles, and the digestive system.
Because of his discoveries, Vesalius became famous. He even became the personal doctor to the Holy Roman emperor, Charles V. This emperor ruled over Spain and the Habsburg Netherlands.
Vesalius wrote important books about anatomy, like “De Humani Corporis Fabrica,” which covered many aspects of the human body. He also wrote about where to cut veins for medical procedures in a book called “Epistola, Docens Venam Axillarem Dextri Cubiti in Dolore Laterali Secandam.”
People remember Vesalius as one of the founders of human anatomy, along with Jacques Dubois, Jean Fernel, and Gabriele Falloppio. In 1543, during a visit to Switzerland, Vesalius got permission to keep the skeleton of a person named Jakob von Gebweiler. This skeleton, known as the “Basel Skeleton,” is one of the oldest human anatomical specimens.
Today, there’s even a lunar crater named after Andreas Vesalius, showing how important his contributions to the study of the human body were.

Next: Top 5 Scientific Blunders which Scared the Humanity


  • Senior, Kara Rogers, ed. The 100 most influential scientists of all time. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2009. [Book]
  • Tiner, John Hudson. 100 scientists who shaped world history. Sourcebooks, Inc., 2000. [Book]

By The Research Mind

We, researchers from the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge, are dedicated to sharing the latest updates, breakthroughs, and even the occasional blunders in Science & Technology. Stay tuned for some truly mind-blowing science experiments!

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