Are you familiar with the prominent scientists hailing from your homeland? We’re unveiling the top 100 scientists of all time, and it’s time to explore how many of them originate from your nation. Each of these scientists possesses a remarkable narrative of uncovering new knowledge and contributing to the betterment of society.

Part 4 showcases scientists numbered 76 to 100, representing countries starting with the letters ‘S’ to ‘Z’. Be sure to check out our blogs for Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3, which highlight scientists from countries beginning with ‘A’ to ‘R’.

From Serbia, we have selected one exceptional scientist to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The only luminary from Serbia on our list is Nikola Tesla.

76. Serbia-01 : Nikola Tesla (July 10, 1856 – January 7, 1943)

Nikola Tesla stands as a titan of engineering whose inventions have left an indelible mark on the global landscape, surpassing even the illustrious Isambard Kingdom Brunel in their widespread impact. While Augustin-Louis Cauchy delved exclusively into the realm of mathematics, Tesla’s visionary prowess encompassed a vast array of disciplines, earning him accolades as one of history’s greatest engineers.

Drawing inspiration from the groundbreaking experiments of Faraday, Ampère, and Oersted, Tesla discerned the transformative potential of electricity, telephony, mechanics, and magnetism. With unmatched ingenuity, he translated these theoretical insights into practical applications, leaving his distinctive imprint on the technological landscape.

Tesla’s genius lay not only in his inventive spirit but also in his profound understanding of emerging mechatronic principles. His conceptual mastery was matched only by his practical acumen, enabling him to devise blueprints that would underpin modern technologies for generations to come.

Despite his monumental contributions, Tesla remained a diligent and unassuming figure, inspiring awe and admiration in those who crossed his path. His remarkable intuition guided him through uncharted territory, paving the way for countless innovations that would shape the course of history.

The profound impact of Tesla’s work is perhaps most evident in the ubiquity of electric supply, a testament to his relentless pursuit of progress and innovation. While he may not have received due recognition in his lifetime, his enduring legacy was immortalized when his name was designated the S.I. unit of magnetic flux density during the General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960—an overdue tribute to a pioneer whose selfless dedication transformed the world.

From Spain, we have selected one exceptional scientist to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The only luminary from Spain on our list is Abu Al-Qasim IBN Al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi.

77. Spain-01 : Abu Al-Qasim IBN Al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 – 1013)

Throughout the annals of medical history, few figures stand as prominently as Abu al-Qasim Ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi, known to medieval Europeans as “Albucasis.” Born during the Islamic Golden Age, al-Zahrawi’s contributions to the field of surgery have earned him the title of the “Father of Modern Surgery” and established his legacy as one of the foremost practitioners of his time.

At the heart of his enduring influence lies his monumental work, the 30-volume compendium titled Kitab al-Tasrif. This magnum opus stands as one of the most comprehensive and authoritative encyclopedias in the history of science, serving as the definitive surgical textbook for over five centuries.

Al-Zahrawi’s innovations transcended the boundaries of his era, pioneering techniques, practices, and surgical implements that continue to shape modern medicine. From his precise descriptions of ectopic pregnancy and hereditary links to haemophilia to his development of surgical procedures such as cataract removals, caesarean sections, and precise cannulae, his contributions revolutionized the practice of surgery.

Beyond his surgical endeavors, al-Zahrawi’s insatiable curiosity led him to explore various disciplines, including pharmacy, chemistry, and astronomy. His discoveries in pharmaceuticals yielded therapeutic and cosmetic substances that would have a lasting impact on medical practice.

As the esteemed court physician to Abd al-Rahman III, the Emir of Córdoba and the greatest Caliph of the Umayyad-Arab-Muslim dynasty of Spain, al-Zahrawi had access to vast repositories of knowledge. His influence extended beyond his medical expertise, inspiring a generation of scholars and practitioners who would carry on his legacy.

From Sweden, we have selected one exceptional scientist to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The only luminary from Sweden on our list is Carl Linnaeus.

78. Sweden-01 : Carl Linnaeus (May 23, 1707 – January 10, 1778)

The narrative surrounding Evolution Theory often eclipses the contributions of figures like Carl Linnaeus and Gregor Mendel, whose work in taxonomy and genetics provides a solid foundation for understanding biodiversity and ancestry.

Carl Linnaeus, in particular, stands as a titan in the field of taxonomy. In the 1730s, he revolutionized the classification of living organisms by introducing a scientifically-based system of binomial nomenclature. Building upon the work of Swiss brothers Gaspard and Johann Bauhin, Linnaeus published his seminal work, Systema Naturae, in 1735. This groundbreaking publication laid out a systematic framework for organizing and naming living organisms, setting the stage for modern biology.

Linnaeus’s contributions extended beyond mere classification. His influential works, including Philosophia Botanica and Species Plantarum, further refined his taxonomic system and classified a vast array of plant species. These publications not only provided a comprehensive catalog of Swedish flora but also established Linnaeus as a central figure in the development of modern biological science.

The enduring legacy of Linnaeus lies not only in the names he assigned to organisms but also in his delineation of the characteristic features shared by group members. His taxonomic methodologies continue to serve as the cornerstone of modern classification systems, guiding biologists in their study of the natural world from the kingdom level down to individual species.

In the realm of genetics, Gregor Mendel’s work on inheritance laid the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying evolutionary change. Through meticulous experiments with pea plants, Mendel elucidated the principles of heredity and established the laws of segregation and independent assortment. These fundamental insights provided a theoretical framework for understanding how traits are passed from one generation to the next, forming the basis of modern genetics.

From Switzerland, we have selected three exceptional scientists to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The first luminary from Switzerland on our list is Daniel Bernoulli.

79. Switzerland-01 : Daniel Bernoulli (February 8, 1700 – March 17, 1782)

Daniel Bernoulli, a member of the renowned Bernoulli family, played a pivotal role in shaping the landscape of mathematics and physics during the 17th and 18th centuries. Alongside illustrious relatives such as his uncle Jakob, father Johann, and brother Nikolaus, Daniel stands as one of the most prominent geniuses of this Swiss mathematical dynasty. He forged a close friendship with Leonhard Euler, widely considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

Despite his natural aptitude for mathematics, Daniel initially pursued studies in biology at his father’s insistence. However, once he gained independence, he wholeheartedly embraced mathematics, the discipline for which the Bernoulli family was renowned. After earning his PhD in anatomy and botany, Daniel shifted his focus to mathematics, where he made significant contributions that would shape various fields.

One of Daniel’s pioneering achievements was in statistics, but he soon turned his attention to mathematical physics, particularly fluid dynamics. In his seminal work “Hydrodynamica,” published in 1738, Daniel introduced the Bernoulli Principle, along with his eponymous equation, which revolutionized our understanding of fluid flow. His meticulous and refined approach to research earned him the Grand Prix of the Paris Science Academy an impressive ten times between 1725 and 1749, covering diverse topics such as oceanography, magnetism, waves, optics, and astronomy.

Daniel’s contributions extended beyond fluid dynamics to encompass thermodynamics, kinetic theory, resonance, and wave propagation. As an early proponent of mathematical physics, he explored various areas of applied mathematics, making far-reaching contributions. His monograph “Exercitationes quaedam Mathematicae” exemplifies his use of differential equations to tackle complex problems in fluid mechanics, laying the groundwork for future developments in the field.

The second luminary from Switzerland on our list is Leonhard Euler.

80. Switzerland-02 : Leonhard Euler (April 15, 1707 – September 18, 1783)

Leonhard Euler stands as an unparalleled figure in the realm of mathematics, with a legacy marked by nearly one thousand first-class publications—a testament to his prolific intellect and enduring influence. Hailing from Switzerland, Euler’s remarkable brainpower allowed him to effortlessly tackle mathematical challenges, earning him the epithet “Analysis Incarnate” and recognition as the preeminent algorist of his time.

Euler’s mastery extended across all branches of mathematics, where he not only excelled but also forged connections between disparate fields, standardized notation, proved countless theorems, and introduced innovative methodologies. Throughout his 76-year lifetime, Euler’s contributions dominated mathematical literature, with approximately one-third of all mathematical publications bearing his name—an astonishing feat that earned him widespread acclaim.

Renowned mathematicians such as Pierre-Simon Laplace hailed Euler as “The Master of all Mathematicians,” while Carl Friedrich Gauss revered his works as an “irreplaceable best school for maths.” André Weil echoed these sentiments, emphasizing Euler’s indisputable leadership across diverse mathematical disciplines.

Despite facing challenges such as blindness later in life, Euler’s intellect remained undiminished. During his tenure at Russia’s Science Academy, colleagues marveled at his ability to mentally conceive complex mathematical treatises, dictating them to his secretary for publication—a feat that astounded all who witnessed it.

Euler’s contributions to mathematics transcend mere quantity, encompassing an unparalleled depth and beauty evident in his groundbreaking theorems. His imprint is indelibly stamped on some of the greatest mathematical discoveries, establishing him as the unequivocal champion among mathematicians, surpassing even the likes of Gauss and Newton.

The third luminary from Switzerland on our list is Johann Heinrich Lambert.

81. Switzerland-03 : Johann Heinrich Lambert (August 26, 1728 – September 25, 1777)

ohann Lambert, despite humble beginnings, emerged as a brilliant polymath whose intellectual prowess spanned mathematics, physics, logic, cartography, and philosophy. Forced to forego formal schooling to support his family, Lambert pursued education through private study while working full-time, laying the groundwork for his future achievements.

A versatile genius, Lambert’s contributions to various fields were both profound and diverse. In 1755, he invented a hygrometer that surpassed Leonardo da Vinci’s earlier prototype. Later, in 1761, Lambert provided the first proof that pi is an irrational number, showcasing his mastery of continued fractions. Alongside Vincenzo Riccati, he also pioneered hyperbolic functions, further solidifying his status as a mathematical innovator.

Lambert’s expertise extended to cartography, where he became the first mathematician to explore map projections of a spherical earth. His insights inspired Carl Gauss’s “Theorema Egregium” and led to the publication of his influential dissertation in 1772, titled “Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten.”

In addition to his scientific pursuits, Lambert seamlessly integrated philosophy into his work, earning admiration from notable figures like Immanuel Kant, with whom he maintained lifelong correspondence. Lambert’s forward-thinking ideas included early advocacy for the concept of super galaxies.

Lambert’s profound impact on physics and mathematics is commemorated through various eponymous honors, including the Lambert series, Lambert quadrilateral, Lambertian reflectance, Lambert’s cosine law, and astronomical features such as the Lambert crater on Mars and the Lambert lunar crater.

From Turkey, we have selected one exceptional scientist to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The only luminary from Turkey on our list is Claudius Galen of Pergamon.

82. Turkey-01 : Claudius Galen of Pergamon (Circa 129 – 216 AD)

Claudius Galen, esteemed as the preeminent physician of ancient Europe, revolutionized medical thought and practice with his comprehensive theories and groundbreaking contributions. Focusing primarily on anatomy, physiology, pathology, and pharmacology, Galen’s works not only surpassed those of his predecessors, including Hippocrates, but also shaped European medical education and practice for over a millennium.

Galen’s meticulous anatomical studies, albeit conducted primarily on primates and swine due to societal restrictions on human dissections, remained influential for more than a millennium until Andreas Vesalius introduced human specimens. Despite Vesalius’ advancements, Galen’s works were deemed indispensable, prompting their translation from Greek to Latin to ensure their preservation and dissemination.

In addition to anatomy, Galen delved into various scientific disciplines, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of his pursuits during the era’s natural philosophy. His clinical expertise and accomplishments solidified his reputation as Europe’s foremost clinician, with purportedly over 500 treatises across diverse fields, although fewer than half of them survived.

Galen’s philosophical insights, drawing upon the foundational teachings of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, further elevated his stature, earning accolades from luminaries such as Emperor Marcus Aurelius of Rome, Sage Athenaeus of Naucratis, and Sage Alexander of Aphrodisias, who regarded him not only as the premier physician but also as the most outstanding philosopher of his era.

The enduring influence of Galen’s concepts and practices, exemplified by the Galenic formulation among other enduring contributions, underscores his legacy as a titan of ancient European scholarship and a foundational figure in the history of medicine.

From the United Kingdom, we have selected thirteen exceptional scientists to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The first luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Robert Hooke.

83. UK-01 : Robert Hooke(July 28, 1635 – March 3, 1703)

Robert Hooke, a polymath of the 17th century, left an indelible mark on various scientific disciplines, earning recognition as one of the era’s foremost scholars and experimentalists. Before his notable collaboration with Robert Boyle in conducting groundbreaking gas law experiments, Hooke served as an assistant to Thomas Willis, gaining valuable experience that would shape his future endeavors. His meticulous attention to detail and aptitude for scientific inquiry propelled him to prominence in multiple fields.

Hooke’s investigations into the properties of materials led to the formulation of his law of elasticity, a foundational principle in metallurgy and engineering that continues to inform modern practices. His scholarly achievements culminated in his appointment as the 9th Gresham Professor of Geometry in London, where he imparted knowledge and inspired future generations of scientists.

In 1665, Hooke made a seminal contribution to the field of biology by observing and documenting cells, earning him recognition as an early pioneer in cytology. His work predates the formalization of the Cell Theory by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann by nearly two centuries, underscoring his foresight and insight into the microscopic world.

As a pioneer in microscopy, Hooke produced “Micrographia,” a groundbreaking publication that showcased his discoveries and insights. Through detailed illustrations and meticulous observations, “Micrographia” revealed the intricate structures of plants and animals as seen through the microscope, igniting interest in the burgeoning field of microscopy.

Hooke’s versatility extended beyond biology to encompass optics, astronomy, entomology, and paleontology, reflecting his diverse intellectual pursuits. His exploration of wave theory of light preceded Christiaan Huygens’s work, highlighting his contributions to the advancement of optical science.

In recognition of his profound scientific contributions, Hooke has been commemorated with various astronomical features named in his honor, including the Hooke Martian crater, the Hooke lunar crater, and the Hooke asteroid.

The second luminary on our list is Isaac Newton.

84. UK-02 : Isaac Newton (January 4, 1643 – March 31, 1727)

Isaac Newton stands as the preeminent figure in the annals of scientific history, revered for his unparalleled contributions that reshaped our understanding of the natural world. His intellectual brilliance traversed a multitude of disciplines within applied mathematics, leaving an indelible mark on mechanics, astronomy, calculus, optics, and more.

Newton’s groundbreaking insights into mathematical physics represented a seismic shift in scientific thought, surpassing even his own earlier achievements in calculus. His profound intellect was matched only by his tireless work ethic, evidenced by his extensive writings on mathematics, science, and religion.

Elevated to the prestigious Lucasian Professorship of Mathematics at Cambridge University at the age of 26, Newton embarked on a journey to provide science with the firm foundation it enjoys today. His seminal work, Principia Mathematica, stands as a cornerstone of scientific literature, revered as the pinnacle of human achievement in the realm of mathematical physics.

Newton’s influence extended far beyond his own era, laying the groundwork for subsequent scientific revolutions and technological advancements. His equivalence principle, for instance, foreshadowed Albert Einstein’s revolutionary theory of relativity, albeit through a different mathematical lens.

While Einstein’s approach to relativity necessitated subsequent geometric refinements, Newton’s mathematical frameworks remained steadfast, a testament to his unparalleled versatility and comprehensive understanding of the mathematical underpinnings of his theories and laws.

In the pantheon of scientific luminaries, Isaac Newton’s legacy remains unrivaled, his towering intellect and profound contributions serving as a guiding light for generations of scientists and scholars. Comparisons with later figures, such as Einstein, pale in comparison to the enduring impact of Newton’s foundational work on the trajectory of human knowledge and progress.

The third luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is James Watt.

85. UK-03 : James Watt (January 30, 1736 – August 25, 1819)

James Watt, renowned for his numerous patents and inventive genius, stood among the foremost inventors of his era. Despite leaving his instrument-making apprenticeship before completing the recommended seven-year period, Watt acquired sufficient knowledge to invent a crucial modifier that allowed telescopes to measure distances—an innovation that underscored his early ingenuity.

Watt’s most enduring legacy lies in his pivotal role in revolutionizing the Industrial Revolution through his groundbreaking improvements to steam engine technology. A purposeful and pragmatic innovator, Watt focused on practical applications of scientific principles, channeling his efforts into various pursuits. While his ventures into chemistry aimed at developing efficient bleaching agents, they yielded mixed results, with success achieved on a smaller scale but falling short of industrial viability.

However, it was Watt’s transformative advancements in steam engine design that secured his place in history. Recognizing the inefficiencies of Thomas Newcomen’s engines, Watt engineered a revolutionary machine featuring a separate condenser—a design innovation that significantly improved efficiency by eliminating the need for cycles of cooling and reheating in the cylinders. Moreover, Watt’s incorporation of rotary motion into his engines further enhanced their versatility, profoundly impacting both industrial processes and transportation systems.

Watt’s contributions extended beyond engineering innovations; he also played a pivotal role in establishing the imperial unit of power measurement, known as horsepower. This unit, devised by Watt, facilitated comparative assessments of various steam engines’ outputs long before the advent of turbines, pistons, and electric motors.

Throughout his illustrious career, Watt received numerous honors and accolades, attesting to the profound impact of his inventions. Among these tributes was the designation of his surname, “Watt,” as the official SI unit for power—a fitting tribute to a pioneering figure whose innovations reshaped industries and propelled humanity into the modern age.

The fourth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Edward Jenner

86. UK-04 : Edward Jenner (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823)

Edward Jenner’s pioneering work in the field of immunology stands as a monumental achievement in the history of medicine, earning him the epithet of “The Father of Immunology” and immortalizing his legacy as a visionary healer.

Amidst the backdrop of rampant smallpox outbreaks that ravaged global communities for centuries, Jenner’s groundbreaking experiments offered a glimmer of hope in the fight against this devastating disease. While it’s true that ancient African, Chinese, and Indian physicians had developed rudimentary immunological techniques prior to Jenner’s time, his independent elucidation and refinement of these concepts played a pivotal role in advancing the understanding of immunization.

Jenner’s ingenious experiments, though crude by modern standards, yielded remarkable results, significantly reducing mortality rates from smallpox and earning him widespread acclaim and adulation. Recognizing the importance of his life-saving discoveries, the British Parliament provided substantial financial support for his research endeavors, underscoring the significance of his contributions to public health.

In 1821, King George IV appointed Jenner as his personal “physician extraordinaire,” a testament to the esteem in which he was held by the highest echelons of society. Throughout his career, Jenner collaborated with esteemed colleagues such as John Hunter and William Osler on a range of medical inquiries, from hygiene to natural history, further expanding the frontiers of scientific knowledge.

Beyond his medical achievements, Jenner’s keen observations in ornithology, particularly his studies of cuckoos and brood parasitism, shed light on the intricate dynamics of avian behavior and ecology. Like his contemporary James Clerk Maxwell, Jenner was also a devout biblical scholar, drawing inspiration from scripture in his pursuits of knowledge and understanding.

Today, Jenner’s legacy endures as a symbol of humanity’s triumph over infectious disease, commemorated by the naming of the Jenner lunar crater—a fitting tribute to a visionary healer whose contributions continue to resonate across generations.

The fifth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is John Dalton.

87. UK-05 : John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844)

John Dalton, renowned for his groundbreaking atomic theory, played a pivotal role in shaping the field of chemistry and laying the foundation for modern particle physics and nuclear chemistry. Despite starting his career as a meteorologist, Dalton’s contributions to the study of matter and its components propelled him to prominence as one of the most influential chemists of the 19th century.

Initially, Dalton honed his skills in meteorology while assisting Elihu Robinson in weather forecasting and instrument manufacturing. Although his treatise on meteorology, titled “Meteorological Observations and Essays,” received limited circulation, Dalton remained dedicated to his studies, meticulously recording weather observations for nearly six decades.

During his tenure as a mathematics tutor at New College in Manchester, Dalton conducted research on deuteranopia, a form of color blindness that affected him and his older brother, Jonathan. His pioneering work on this genetic defect, documented in his treatise “Extraordinary Facts relating to the Vision of Colours, with Observation,” earned him recognition, and the term “Daltonism” is now commonly used to describe this type of color blindness.

Driven by his fascination with the properties and behavior of gases, Dalton conducted experiments on gases under various temperatures and pressures. These experiments led to his formulation of Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, which describes the behavior of gas mixtures. Additionally, Dalton’s investigations into chemical proportions culminated in the formulation of the Law of Multiple Proportions, further solidifying his contributions to the field of chemistry.

Dalton’s most significant contribution came in the form of his atomic theory, which proposed that chemical reactions involve the combination of discrete, indivisible particles known as atoms. While Dalton’s atomic theory underwent subsequent modifications, its fundamental insights remained influential in shaping our understanding of atomic structure and chemical bonding.

In recognition of his profound contributions to science, the Dalton lunar crater, measuring 60 kilometers in diameter and located adjacent to the Einstein crater, was named in his honor.

The sixth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Humphry Davy.

88. UK-06 : Humphry Davy (December 17, 1778 – May 29, 1829)

Humphry Davy, renowned for his prolific experimentation and mentorship of the legendary Michael Faraday, stands as one of the most influential scientists of the 19th century. Despite being born into poverty, Davy overcame numerous obstacles to become a leading figure in scientific research, ultimately shaping the careers of future luminaries such as William Thompson Kelvin.

Davy’s fascination with chemistry began during his apprenticeship to a surgeon who also operated a pharmacy in 1795. It was during this time that he first encountered Alessandro Volta’s voltaic piles, or electric batteries, which he would later utilize in a series of groundbreaking electrochemical experiments. These experiments led to the isolation of various elements, including alkali metals such as potassium and sodium, alkaline earth metals like calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium, as well as halogens such as chlorine and iodine, along with aluminum and boron.

One of Davy’s well-documented experiments involved nitrous oxide (N2O), and he authored the first treatise detailing the application of chemistry to agriculture. In 1802, he publicly demonstrated the production of incandescent light by connecting a platinum filament to a high-capacity battery. This demonstration, along with earlier experiments by Ebenezer Kinnersley, laid the groundwork for the development of electric bulbs by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison.

Davy’s contributions to safety in coal mining are also noteworthy, as he invented the safety lamp, which significantly reduced the risk of explosions in British coal mines. Beyond his scientific endeavors, Davy was a polymath who appreciated literature, composing numerous poems, and indulging in drawing and painting.

In recognition of his significant scientific achievements, various honors bear Davy’s name, including the Davy Medal awarded by the London Royal Society and the Davy lunar crater, which spans 34 kilometers in diameter.

The seventh luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Michael Faraday.

89. UK-07 : Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867)

Michael Faraday’s extraordinary journey stands as a testament to the boundless potential of human intellect and curiosity, transcending the constraints of formal education to become one of the most revered figures in the history of science.

Born into poverty and denied a formal education due to financial hardship, Faraday’s insatiable thirst for knowledge led him on a remarkable path of self-study and discovery. Despite his humble beginnings, he emerged as a towering figure in scientific exploration, ultimately ascending to the pinnacle of experimental research.

Faraday’s tenure as a laboratory assistant to Humphry Davy proved to be a pivotal moment in his career, providing him with the opportunity to showcase his innate talents and insatiable curiosity. His innate brilliance and relentless work ethic propelled him to become one of the preeminent experimenters of his time, captivating the English scientific community with his groundbreaking discoveries.

Over the course of more than five decades, Faraday conducted thousands of experiments spanning the realms of chemistry, electricity, and magnetism. His seminal contributions revolutionized our understanding of these fields, laying the groundwork for countless advancements in science and technology.

Despite his lack of formal credentials, Faraday’s genius earned him widespread acclaim and prestigious appointments, including the esteemed Fullerian Professorship of Chemistry at the Royal Institution in London. Even as he assumed additional responsibilities, Faraday’s passion for inquiry remained undiminished, driving him to continue his groundbreaking research.

Faraday’s influence extended far beyond his own era, inspiring subsequent generations of scientists and innovators. Visionaries such as Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, Ernest Rutherford, and James Clerk Maxwell drew inspiration from his pioneering work, recognizing Faraday as a guiding light in the pursuit of knowledge and discovery.

For Einstein and Rutherford, in particular, Faraday’s legacy loomed large, serving as a constant source of inspiration and admiration throughout their lives. Einstein, in particular, kept a portrait of Faraday alongside other scientific luminaries as a symbol of the enduring impact of his contributions to human understanding.

The eighth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Isambard Kingdom Brunel.

90. UK-08 : Isambard Kingdom Brunel (April 9, 1806 – September 15, 1859)

Isambard Kingdom Brunel stands as a towering figure in the annals of engineering history, his legacy indelibly woven into the fabric of Britain’s industrial prowess and global influence during the 18th to 20th centuries.

Amidst the backdrop of Britain’s imperial expansion and the unprecedented access to global markets it afforded, Brunel emerged as a visionary architect of the Industrial Revolution. His keen intellect, audacious spirit, and unwavering determination propelled him to the forefront of engineering innovation, where he left an indelible mark on the landscape of British industry.

Trained under the tutelage of his father, Brunel honed his craft from an early age, laying the foundation for a career marked by extraordinary achievements and groundbreaking inventions. With meticulous precision and boundless creativity, he tackled a diverse array of projects, from bridges and railways to docks and shipbuilding, each one a testament to his ingenuity and daring.

Brunel’s relentless pursuit of excellence knew no bounds, as he fearlessly embraced challenges that others deemed insurmountable. His visionary designs and pioneering techniques pushed the boundaries of what was thought possible, earning him widespread acclaim and admiration throughout Britain and beyond.

In just a decade, Brunel spearheaded a revolution in civil and mechanical engineering, revolutionizing industries and reshaping the nation’s infrastructure in ways that endure to this day. His innovations, including the development of the first double iron-hulled ship, set new standards of excellence and established Britain as a global leader in technology and engineering prowess.

Although some of Brunel’s ventures faced economic challenges and setbacks, his enduring legacy remains a source of national pride and inspiration. Revered as the greatest engineer of the Industrial Revolution era, his name has become synonymous with ingenuity and innovation, serving as a beacon of excellence for generations of engineers to come.

In England, Brunel is celebrated as a national hero, his memory enshrined in countless monuments and landmarks that dot the British landscape.

The ninth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is James Joseph Sylvester.

91. UK-09 : James Joseph Sylvester (September 3, 1814 – March 15, 1897)

James Joseph Sylvester, a tireless advocate for women’s higher education, was a brilliant mathematician who triumphed over countless obstacles throughout his life. Despite facing discrimination due to his Jewish heritage, Sylvester’s passion for mathematics drove him to pursue academic excellence from a young age.

At the age of 14, Sylvester matriculated in London before continuing his studies at Cambridge University. Despite achieving the prestigious distinction of Second Wrangler in Cambridge’s Tripos exam, he was denied his degree solely because of his Jewish background. This discriminatory treatment extended to his professional life, as he was refused a professorship at Columbia University in New York for the same reason.

Undeterred by institutional prejudice, Sylvester pursued a career in the legal profession while continuing to pursue his love for mathematics. He formed a close friendship with Arthur Cayley, with whom he shared a deep passion for algebra. Together, they developed the Invariant Theory, making significant contributions to fields such as Matrix Theory, Partition Theory, Number Theory, Combinatorics, Mechanics, and even Literature.

Sylvester’s groundbreaking work attracted attention from prestigious institutions, leading to appointments at both Johns Hopkins University in the United States and Oxford University in the United Kingdom. During his tenure at Johns Hopkins, he founded the American Journal of Mathematics, further solidifying his reputation as a leading figure in the mathematical community.

In addition to his numerous contributions to mathematical theory, Sylvester was renowned for his ability to coin terms that have become fundamental in the field, including “graph,” “matrix,” “invariant,” “covariant,” and “discriminant.” His impact on mathematics is commemorated through various honors, including the Sylvester’s sequence, the Royal Society’s Sylvester Medal, the Sylvester lunar crater, the Sylvester asteroid, and the Sylvester Library, a vector, matrix, and geometry library for JavaScript.

The tenth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is James Joule.

92. UK-10 : James Joule (December 24, 1818 – October 11, 1889)

James Joule, renowned for his groundbreaking work in thermodynamics and energy, revolutionized our understanding of the relationship between heat and mechanical work. Through his experiences in brewing and his relentless pursuit of understanding thermal energy, Joule made significant discoveries that ultimately led to the establishment of the Joule as the unit of energy in the International System of Units (S.I.).

Joule’s most notable achievement was demonstrating the fundamental principle of energy conservation, which laid the groundwork for the First Law of Thermodynamics. By establishing the link between heat and mechanical work, Joule refuted the prevailing Caloric Theory, which posited heat as an aggregate of self-repellent fluids. His experiments and observations paved the way for a new understanding of energy transfer and transformation.

Trained under some of Britain’s leading thermal researchers, including John Dalton, William Henry, Eaton Hodgkinson, and Peter Ewart, Joule gained valuable insights into the nature of heat and energy. Drawing upon the principles of Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures and Henry’s Law Constant, he sought to elucidate the relationship between heat energy and the Kinetic Theory of gases.

Joule’s collaboration with William Thomson Kelvin, particularly in developing Kelvin’s absolute temperature scale, further expanded our understanding of thermodynamics. His experiments with electricity, conducted in 1841, led to the discovery of the relationship between electrical resistance, current, and heat generation, now known as the Joule-Lenz Law in honor of Joule and Heinrich Lenz, who independently discovered it in 1842.

In addition to his contributions to thermodynamics and electricity, Joule also made significant discoveries in the field of magnetostriction, uncovering the phenomenon whereby ferromagnetic materials change their dimensions when exposed to magnetic fields.

In recognition of his profound impact on science, the 96-kilometer-wide Joule lunar crater stands as a testament to his enduring legacy.

The eleventh luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is William Thomson Kelvin.

93. UK-11 : William Thomson Kelvin (June 26, 1824 – December 17, 1907)

William Thomson Kelvin, a luminary in the realm of mathematical physics, held the prestigious position of professor at the University of Glasgow for over half a century. His scholarly pursuits spanned a wide array of disciplines, including heat, thermodynamics, electricity, magnetism, and geology, leaving an indelible mark on each field he touched.

Kelvin’s enduring legacy is perhaps most prominently embodied in the absolute temperature scale, which bears his name as its SI unit. While the concept of “absolute zero” temperature had been acknowledged prior to Kelvin, it was his meticulous research that ultimately ascertained its precise value of -273.15°C, a milestone achievement that reshaped our understanding of thermal dynamics.

Throughout his illustrious career, Kelvin collaborated closely with numerous contemporaries, earning acclaim for his instrumental contributions to the formulation of both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. His work not only refined the insights of Nicolas Carnot but also integrated the groundbreaking discoveries of Rudolf Clausius, Benoît Clapeyron, and James Joule, further enriching our comprehension of fundamental thermodynamic principles.

Kelvin’s innovative investigations extended to the realm of electromagnetism, where he postulated the existence of “vortex atoms”—elastic solid structures responsible for generating electromagnetic fields through linear and rotational strains. Additionally, his analyses of Earth’s cooling rate led him to challenge prevailing scientific theories, suggesting that the planet’s age contradicted established notions of evolutionary biology and geological transformation.

Among Kelvin’s myriad contributions are groundbreaking advancements in magnetoresistance, the invention of the siphon recorder and mirror galvanometer, and his pivotal role in the development of trans-Atlantic telegraphy. He was also an early adopter of terms such as “chirality” and “kinetic energy,” employing them in contexts that resonate with contemporary understanding.

Kelvin’s intellectual prowess is immortalized through numerous theorems and concepts that bear his name, including the Kelvin Circulation Theorem, Kelvin’s Equation, and Kelvin’s Wave. In the realm of astrophysics, his legacy endures with the lunar features Rupes Kelvin and Promontorium Kelvin, testament to his enduring influence on the scientific community and the cosmos alike.

The twelfth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is James Clerk Maxwell.

94. UK-12 : James Clerk Maxwell (June 13, 1831 – November 5, 1879)

Long before Maxwell assumed the prestigious position of the first Cavendish Professor of Physics at Cambridge, his remarkable intellect had already caught the attention of another esteemed scientist, William Thomson Kelvin. Maxwell’s prodigious imagination and intellectual prowess were evident throughout his illustrious career, which spanned diverse scientific disciplines.

Maxwell’s contributions were vast and multifaceted. He delved into the kinetic theory of gases and made significant advancements in the understanding of color photography, showcasing the breadth of his interests and expertise. Additionally, Maxwell was known for his deep engagement with biblical scholarship, often quoting verses—a testament to his wide-ranging curiosity and intellectual pursuits.

Among Maxwell’s many achievements, his Theory of Electromagnetic Radiation stands out as a crowning jewel. With this groundbreaking theory, Maxwell successfully unified magnetic, optical, and electrical phenomena into a cohesive and elegant equation, laying the foundation for modern physics. His electromagnetic formulation remains one of the most important unifications of physical laws since the time of Isaac Newton, serving as a cornerstone for numerous technological advancements.

Maxwell’s research findings continued to reverberate through the scientific community for decades, ultimately contributing to the development of Special Relativity. His brilliance earned him the admiration of esteemed figures like Albert Einstein, who regarded him highly alongside luminaries such as Isaac Newton and Michael Faraday. Maxwell’s legacy endures as one of the greatest researchers in scientific history, despite his relatively short life—he passed away at the age of 48 from abdominal cancer, the same illness that had claimed his mother four decades earlier.

In addition to his indispensable electromagnetic equation, Maxwell is also credited with being the first to analyze Control Theory and to theorize the existence of various electromagnetic radiations traveling at the speed of light. To honor his monumental contributions, several astronomical features bear his name, including the Maxwell Ringlet and Maxwell Gap in the rings of Saturn, as well as the Maxwell Montes on Venus, serving as enduring reminders of his enduring legacy in the annals of science.

The thirteenth luminary from the United Kingdom on our list is Alexander Fleming.

95. UK-13 : Alexander Fleming (August 6, 1881 – March 11, 1955)

Alexander Fleming’s pivotal role in the annals of medicine was catalyzed by a stroke of serendipity that forever altered the course of medical history. In a moment of chance discovery on September 3, 1928, Fleming’s return to his laboratory after a summer hiatus unveiled a transformative revelation.

Surveying his culture media, Fleming encountered an unexpected phenomenon: contamination by fungi that had inadvertently eradicated surrounding bacteria. Recognizing the potential significance of this observation, Fleming hypothesized that the fungi were producing an antibacterial substance. With meticulous curiosity, he isolated and cultivated the fungi on a new medium, yielding astonishing results. The species was identified as Penicillium notatum, and its active compound, aptly named penicillin, exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial properties against a multitude of pathogens.

This fortuitous discovery heralded a new era in medicine, sparking a wave of intensive research that culminated in the development of various antibiotics. These breakthroughs revolutionized medical practice, ushering in an era of unprecedented efficacy in combating infectious diseases. From tuberculosis and pneumonia to the bubonic plague, ailments that once wrought havoc and claimed countless lives were subdued by the curative powers of antibiotics.

The impact of antibiotics transcended human health, extending to the well-being of animals and livestock. From thwarting infections to mitigating post-surgical complications, antibiotics emerged as indispensable tools in the medical arsenal, elevating life expectancies and averting untold suffering.

Fleming’s momentous discovery garnered widespread recognition, earning him the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945, which he shared with Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey. Furthermore, the enduring legacy of his contribution is immortalized in the dedication of the 91006 Fleming asteroid, a testament to his enduring influence on the trajectory of medical science and the betterment of humanity.

From the USA, we have selected five exceptional scientists to be featured in our list of the top 100 scientists of all time. The first luminary from the USA on our list is George Washington Carver.

96. USA-01 : George Washington Carver (January 5, 1864 – January 5, 1943)

George Washington Carver, a beacon of vision and resilience, emerged as one of history’s most celebrated botanists despite facing formidable obstacles throughout his life. His groundbreaking agricultural research and innovations revolutionized American agriculture and earned him international acclaim. With over five decades devoted to agronomical exploration, including nearly five decades of professorship, Carver’s contributions spanned diverse fields such as plant breeding, crop rotation, chemurgy, permaculture, and alternative cropping methods.

His transformative work garnered widespread recognition, exemplified by TIME magazine’s unprecedented tribute to him in a 1941 editorial, a rare honor for an African American at the time. Carver’s pioneering research on legumes, fruits, and vegetables not only diversified agricultural practices but also offered viable alternatives to cotton cultivation. Through his tireless efforts, he not only improved farming techniques but also disseminated vital information to farmers through comprehensive bulletins on food and cash crops.

Beyond his scientific achievements, Carver emerged as a leading advocate for environmental protection and ecological conservation, pioneering efforts in these critical areas. His expertise led to consultancies with numerous institutions and companies, including advising Sweden’s Crown Prince Olaf Gustaf Adolf on botany and counseling three U.S. Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, and Franklin Roosevelt.

Despite enduring the hardships of his early life in slavery and confronting systemic racism throughout his career, Carver’s remarkable achievements earned him numerous honors and accolades. His legacy is immortalized on the 1948 three-cent postage stamp and the half-dollar coin minted between 1951 and 1954, both featuring his portrait. Additionally, the Second World War Liberty Ship SS George Washington Carver stands as a testament to his enduring impact. Astronomical features, including the 59-kilometer-wide Carver lunar crater and the 7042 Carver asteroid, also bear his name, further commemorating his legacy as a pioneer in agricultural science and environmental advocacy.

The second luminary from the USA on our list is John Bardeen.

97. USA-02 : John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991)

John Bardeen’s illustrious career is marked by groundbreaking contributions to physics and electronics, earning him the distinction of being the first and only individual to receive two Nobel Prizes in Physics. However, his enduring legacy stems not only from his accolades but also from his profound intellect, innovative research, and far-reaching influence on the development of electronics.

In 1947, Bardeen, along with Walter Brattain and William Shockley, collaborated to invent the transistor, a seminal achievement that revolutionized the field of electronics. Despite initial collaboration, Bardeen’s relationship with Shockley soured due to the latter’s contentious demeanor. Nonetheless, the trio was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956 for their pioneering work on the transistor.

Following his groundbreaking work on transistors, Bardeen shifted his focus to the study of superconductivity. Teaming up with Leon Cooper and John Schrieffer, he formulated the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory in 1957, providing the first microscopic explanation of superconductivity. This seminal theory earned Bardeen his second Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972, solidifying his status as a luminary in the field.

The impact of Bardeen’s work extended far beyond theoretical physics. The BCS theory laid the foundation for advancements in technologies such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have revolutionized medical diagnostics and research.

Bardeen’s influence transcended academic circles, shaping the careers of future generations of physicists and engineers. Notably, his former student Nick Holonyak Jr., credited with the discovery of the first visible-wavelength GaAs laser diode, exemplifies Bardeen’s enduring legacy in applied physics.

Recognizing Bardeen’s monumental contributions, the Sony Group Corporation established a $3 million endowed professorship in his name at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in 1990. Moreover, in 2008, the United States honored Bardeen with commemorative stamps, plaques, and monuments, underscoring his enduring impact on science and society.

The third luminary from the USA on our list is Vivien Theodore Thomas.

98. USA-03 : Vivien Theodore Thomas (August 29, 1910 – November 26, 1985)

Vivien Theodore Thomas stands as a testament to the power of innate talent and determination, reminiscent of historical figures like Michael Faraday, Srinivasa Ramanujan, and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who achieved greatness without formal tertiary education. Despite facing familial poverty exacerbated by the Great Depression, Thomas’s natural aptitude and perseverance propelled him to extraordinary heights in the field of medicine.

His journey began as a surgical laboratory assistant to Alfred Blalock, where his innate abilities quickly elevated him to a position of authority in cardiology. Thomas pioneered innovative treatments for Methemoglobinemia and Cyanotic heart disease, tackling surgical challenges that even seasoned surgeons hesitated to confront. By the late 1930s, he had become so proficient in surgery that he found himself tutoring esteemed clinicians, including Blalock and Helen Taussig, in complex surgical techniques.

Despite his pivotal contributions to medical advancements, Thomas faced the harsh reality of racial discrimination in the United States. The color-bar hypocrisy of the era denied him the recognition he deserved, with several American institutions and publishers overlooking his contributions to groundbreaking procedures like the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig shunt, instead attributing them solely to Blalock and Taussig.

Undeterred by systemic racism, Thomas continued to blaze trails in the field of medicine. His expertise garnered widespread recognition, leading to consultancy requests from prestigious institutions like Vanderbilt University and Johns Hopkins University. Over his illustrious 45-year career as a Surgery Instructor and Surgical Lab Supervisor, Thomas left an indelible mark on the field of cardiology.

In recognition of his extraordinary contributions, Johns Hopkins University bestowed upon Thomas an honorary LL.D. degree in 1976, underscoring his immense impact on the medical community. Beyond formal accolades, Thomas’s remarkable story has been immortalized in numerous movies, documentaries, sagas, and prose pieces, ensuring that his legacy endures as an inspiration for generations to come.

The fourth luminary from the USA on our list is Katherine Coleman Johnson.

99. USA-04 : Katherine Coleman Johnson (August 26, 1918 – February 24, 2020)

Katherine Creola Coleman Goble Johnson stands as a shining example of brilliance and resilience, overcoming formidable obstacles to become one of the most distinguished scientists of her time. From a young age, her extraordinary intellect was evident, earning her a mathematics degree with the highest honors at just 18 years old.

In an era marked by pervasive racial and gender prejudices, Johnson refused to let societal barriers hinder her aspirations. Instead, she persevered in her pursuits, making groundbreaking contributions to the fields of Astrodynamics, Orbital Mechanics, Aerospace, and Cosmology. Her pioneering work played a pivotal role in propelling the United States ahead in the space race against the Soviet Union.

From conducting launch-window evaluations to calculating trajectories and plotting backup navigational charts, Johnson’s expertise was indispensable to the success of numerous space missions. Her meticulously calculated solutions ensured the accuracy and safety of crucial orbital calculations, including those for the first American to orbit the Earth and the historic lunar landing.

Even with the advent of advanced electronic computers at NASA, Johnson’s mental prowess and unparalleled ability to solve complex mathematical problems remained unmatched. Astronauts, including the legendary John Glenn, trusted her calculations implicitly, insisting that she verify all computer-generated orbit calculations before their missions.

Despite facing overt racial discrimination, NASA recognized and rewarded Johnson’s exceptional talents, honoring her with multifarious accolades, including the highest awards bestowed by the United States. Her legacy continues to be celebrated through various tributes, including a spacecraft named in her honor, as well as numerous monuments, institutes, research centers, and NASA facilities dedicated to preserving her memory and contributions to science and humanity.

The fifth luminary from the USA on our list is Jesse Ernest Wilkins, Junior.

100. USA-05 : Jesse Ernest Wilkins, Jr. (November 27, 1923 – May 1, 2011)

Jesse Ernest Wilkins Jr. emerged as a beacon of brilliance and resilience, overcoming daunting challenges to become one of the most remarkable geniuses of the 20th century. Born into a society plagued by deep-seated racism and discrimination, Wilkins faced formidable obstacles from the outset. However, his exceptional intelligence and insatiable thirst for knowledge set him apart from an early age, earning him recognition as a child prodigy.

Despite the pervasive racial prejudices of 1920s America, Wilkins astounded observers with his extraordinary intellect, following in the footsteps of his father, who had similarly impressed a generation earlier. His intellectual prowess caught the attention of the academic community, leading to his admission to the University of Chicago at the unprecedented age of 13. There, he demonstrated a remarkable aptitude for mathematics, completing his undergraduate, master’s, and doctoral degrees by the age of 19, an achievement unparalleled in academic history.

Wilkins’s academic journey continued to soar as he pursued advanced studies in mechanical engineering, distinguishing himself as one of the youngest researchers to contribute to the Manhattan Project, the monumental scientific endeavor of the 20th century. His brilliance and versatility were further evident as he embarked on a distinguished career as a mathematics professor, physics professor, and eventually, as the President of the American Nuclear Society.

Despite not achieving widespread fame, Wilkins’s intellectual prowess surpassed that of many prominent figures of his time, including Albert Einstein and Nikola Tesla. Experts recognized his extraordinary contributions across a vast array of disciplines, from multivariable calculus and algebraic geometry to biophysics and nuclear technologies. His pioneering work in developing gamma and neutron shielding models remains instrumental in safeguarding nuclear reactors and continues to impact the field of nuclear science.

Next: Top 5 Scientific Blunders which Scared the Humanity


  • Senior, Kara Rogers, ed. The 100 most influential scientists of all time. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc, 2009. [Book]
  • Tiner, John Hudson. 100 scientists who shaped world history. Sourcebooks, Inc., 2000. [Book]

By The Research Mind

We, researchers from the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge, are dedicated to sharing the latest updates, breakthroughs, and even the occasional blunders in Science & Technology. Stay tuned for some truly mind-blowing science experiments!

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